Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (2022)

Christine de Pizan (1365-1430) è stata una scrittrice italiana naturalizzata francese vissuta nel Quattrocento. Secondo la storiografia di genere, si tratta di una femminista ante-litteram, la prima femminista della storia, grazie alla sua opera più famosa, il Livre de la Cité des Dames (la Città delle Dame). Questo libro venne scritto in risposta al libro di Giovanni Boccaccio (De mulieribus claris, Sulle donne famose), nonché di altri testi a suo dire avversi alla condizione femminile. In queste opere le donne sarebbero state designate «profondamente cattive e inclini al vizio». Con il suo libro Christine volle riabilitare molte di queste figure femminili, ispirando tutte le donne a uscire dalla loro condizione di inferiorità. Siamo dunque in presenza di una figura storica molto rilevante, caposcuola del femminismo, onorificenza a mio avviso meritata, ma con qualche precisazione.Prima di tutto bisognerebbe evidenziare che Christine de Pizan è molto, molto lontana dall'immagine che possiamo avere oggi delle femministe. Tutti siamo figli del nostro tempo e lo sono anche molti dei valori che pratichiamo e difendiamo quotidianamente. E lo è anche Christine de Pizan, favorevole ad esempio alla pena di morte (maschile), in un'epoca nella quale questa pena rappresentava la normalità e non esistevano ONG del tipo Nessuno tocchi Caino (e così viene smentito l'ennesimo postulato femminista, che vuole che le donne, o le femministe se volete, “non tolgano la vita”).

Lei scrive: «...venne emanata [a Roma] una legge che condannava a morte chiunque violentasse una donna; questa è una pena legittima, giusta e santa». Ancora più problematiche sono le sue dichiarazioni “patriarcali” in contrasto con la fede femminista – che raramente vedrete citate nei libri di storiografia femminista quando parlano di Christine de Pizan. La madre capostipite del femminismo consiglia alle donne: «E voi, care amiche che siete sposate, non sdegnatevi di essere tanto sottomesse ai vostri mariti, poiché non è sempre meglio per una persona essere libera. [...] E voi, giovinette, che siete vergini, i vostri sguardi siano bassi, poche siano le parole nelle vostre bocche, rispetto in ogni vostra azione. [...] Alle dame vedove, siate oneste nel vestire, nel contegno e nelle parole; devote nell’agire e nello stile di vita, prudenti nel comportamento». Così è smentita la “costruzione dell'eterno femminino” per mano esclusiva dell'uomo; si trattava in realtà di una “costruzione” culturale alla quale partecipavano ben volentieri le donne, anche figure innalzate dal movimento femminista a modello da seguire, tipo Christine de Pizan.

Boccaccio, secondo De Pizan, svilirebbe le donne.

Non solo le dichiarazioni, anche la sua biografia smentisce diversi postulati storici femministi. Christine racconta che fu la madre «l’ostacolo più grande allo studio e all’approfondimento delle scienze». Il padre invece, Tommaso da Pizzano, grande medico e filosofo, la incoraggiò nello studio. Christine fa un'analogia tra la sua esperienza personale e altre due storie simili alla sua, quelle di Ortensia, un'oratrice romana dall’eloquenza straordinaria che seguì le orme paterne, e di Novella d’Andrea, figlia di Giovanni d’Andrea, professore di diritto canonico, educatasi alla scuola del padre e che teneva lezione in sua assenza e lo sostituiva nell’insegnamento universitario (smentendo così l'opposizione sistematica maschile all'istruzione femminile). All'epoca erano numerose le miniatrici, le calligrafe, le copiste. Anche Christine, grazie alla sua istruzione, da vedova manteneva con questa attività una famiglia numerosa (smentito il postulato che le donne non potevano lavorare). Il matrimonio per Christine fu un matrimonio felice, esprimerà più volte la sua desolata solitudine e la perdita del suo amato marito in liriche, di cui forse la più nota è Seulete sui (smentita la rappresentazione del matrimonio come istituzione patriarcale). Nel 1418, Christine si ritirò in un convento e visse volontariamente la vita monacale per 12 anni (smentite le sistematiche ordinazioni femminili forzate). Di fatto Christine non si lamentò mai della reclusione delle donne, tanto è vero che confinò le donne del suo romanzo, la Città delle Dame, in una “fortezza”, recluse (smentita la reclusione femminile per mano maschile). Infine, Christine ebbe due fratelli, Paolo e Aghinolfo, cresciuti e istruiti insieme. Una volta morto il padre, i figli maschi decisero di rientrare a Bologna. In un mondo patriarcale, che secondo la dottrina femminista imporrebbe la censura delle donne, perché l'unica figura nota è quella di lei e i due fratelli sono dei perfetti sconosciuti, malgrado tutti e tre avessero ricevuto la stessa formazione e fossero cresciuti nello stesso ambiente familiare? (smentita la censura storica sulle donne).

Sono altre le caratteristiche che rendono Christine de Pizan a tutti gli effetti adatta per il titolo di madre capostipite del femminismo. In primis, la sua parzialità. La sua lettura dell'opera di Boccaccio è, come minimo, settaria. De mulieribus claris descrive le vite di 106 donne dell'Antichità e del Medioevo, a scopo morale: l'autore presenta degli esempi di vita femminili e sprona alla virtù, attraverso le azioni di queste donne, siano buone che cattive. L'incipit dell'opera: «Dovendo io scrivere per che virtù sono conosciute le famose donne, non parrà cosa indegna di pigliare lo cominciamento da chi fu madre di tutti gli uomini, Eva». Di conseguenza, a volte le donne vengono celebrate, a volte biasimate. Ad esempio, «Penelope … fu una donna di grandissima bellezza e somma onestà, e esempio incorruttibile santissimo e eterno delle donne... ella con astuzia di donna ditesseva la notte nascosamente tutto quello che ella avea tessuto il dì». Prima di De mulieribus claris Boccaccio compose un'altra opera intitolata De casibus virorum illustrium, contenente le biografie di 56 uomini e donne, che percorreva lo stesso spirito critico e moralista, di figure sia virtuose che viziose. È probabile che queste opere di Boccaccio non siano libere completamente da pregiudizi, ma ancora prima di iniziare la loro lettura mi desta stupore lo svilimento della condizione femminile che quest'autore avrebbe operato, secondo Christine de Pizan, quando la sua opera più importante, il Decameron, è dedicata esplicitamente alle donne, e queste sono trattate lungo il suo capolavoro in perfetta parità.

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Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (2)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (3)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (4)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (5)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (6)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (7)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (8)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (9)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (10)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (11)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (12)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (13)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (14)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (15)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (16)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (17)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (18)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (19)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (20)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (21)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (22)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (23)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (24)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (25)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (26)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (27)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (28)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (29)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (30)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (31)
Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (32)

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Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (33)

Christine De Pizan: il proto-femminismo - La Fionda (34)

Gli uomini colpevoli di ogni infelicità.

Può essere che sia proprio Christine de Pizan a giudicare pregiudizialmente? Al contrario di Boccaccio, che descrive uomini e donne, con le proprie virtù e vizi, Christine costruisce un’idillica Città delle dame, di solo donne, nella quale la cattiveria, le guerre e la violenza sono estranee (postulato della superiorità morale femminile). Tra i modelli femminili di virtù che abitano questa fortezza troviamo Didone che, risentita, augurò eterna inimicizia tra i popoli di Roma e Cartagine, guerre e distruzione, dopo che Enea l’aveva lasciata; la regina Semiramide, guerrafondaia e incestuosa, ebbe rapporti con il proprio figlio; o la regina Fredegonda, una serial killer conclamata (postulato della sorellanza, le donne vanno sempre difese in quanto donne). Tutte queste donne sono per l'autrice degne di lode, e così esercita su di loro un formidabile lavaggio di immagine. La partecipazione delle donne, come Semiramide, Zenobia, Artemisia o Fredegonda, nelle guerre storiche o leggendarie non è mai un atto di violenza gratuito, rispondono sempre a una provocazione, un tradimento, un attacco precedente, difendono se stesse e i loro figli o il loro paese. In questa visionaria città fortificata, abitata solo da donne senza vizi, non ci dimorano uomini virtuosi, nemmeno suo padre (che l'ha cresciuta e istruita) né il suo amato marito meritano di formare parte di questa città (postulato dell'esclusione maschile). In sintesi, per Boccaccio c'erano uomini virtuosi, donne virtuose, uomini viziosi e donne viziose; per Christine de Pizan ci sono solo donne virtuose. Chi pecca di pregiudizi?

Il tema dell'educazione femminile è centrale nella Città delle Dame. Secondo l'autrice, l'impossibilità di imparare, unita all'isolamento tra le mura domestiche, sarebbero state le cause della presunta inferiorità femminile e della sua assenza sulla scena culturale, anche perché a suo dire se alle bambine venissero insegnate le stesse materie dei bambini, «lo comprenderebbero meglio» perché «il loro ingegno è più acuto» (di nuovo, postulato di superiorità, questa volta intellettuale). A dimostrazione delle potenzialità delle donne Christine riporta vari esempi (Saffo, Proba, Novella, Ortensia e altre) che, in realtà, provano quanto la sua denuncia contro l'universo maschile non sia così evidente. Lei stessa, ostacolata dalla madre e agevolata dal padre, rappresenta la prova vivente che la sua visione del mondo non coincide così chiaramente con la realtà. Ma la caratteristica che conferisce a Christine l'importanza acquisita per la storiografia femminista non è la sua parzialità o la presunta superiorità o l'esclusione maschile. Christine è la progenitrice della “disputa delle donne”, cioè del “conflitto dei sessi”. Lei opera una rivoluzione mentale e culturale di immani conseguenze. Per la prima volta l’universalità dell’insuccesso o dell'infelicità dell’anima umana, addebitate a ragioni che oltrepassavano la comprensione e la capacità di intervenire per correggerle dell'essere umano – il destino, la vita, Dio o la “valle di lacrime” –, viene infranta. Christine individua nell’uomo il principale indiziato dell’insuccesso o dell'infelicità delle donne. Le donne portano un abito smesso tagliato per altri: gli uomini. Molto sinteticamente, gli uomini sono colpevoli degli insuccessi e dell'infelicità delle donne, e responsabili delle proprie. Femminismo. Vorrei concludere con una citazione de La grande menzogna del femminismo, opera dalla quale ho tratto la maggior parte dell'informazione di questo intervento, a pag. 1124: «Avrebbe dovuto essere chiaro a tutti, già dal primo momento nel quale tra tutte le donne illustri fu scelta Christine de Pizan come capostipite e modello di femminismo grazie a un mondo di virtù esclusivamente femminile, celebrato nella sua opera La città delle dame, una città “senza uomini”, che il movimento femminista non cercava né la parità né la convivenza».

FAQs

What was Christine Pizan known for? ›

1430, Poissy, France) Christine de Pisan (Christine de Pizan) was a medieval writer and historiographer who advocated for women's equality. Her works, considered to be some of the earliest feminist writings, include poetry, novels, biography, and autobiography, as well as literary, political, and religious commentary.

What books did Christine de Pizan write? ›

Christine de Pizan

Was Christine de Pizan a humanist? ›

Christine de Pizan is an excellent example of a female humanist during the Renaissance. Born in Venice, de Pizan became a prominent professional writer in France in the early 15th century. She wrote prose, poems, and novels.

Where was Christine de Pizan from? ›

Born in Venice in 1364, Christine de Pizan spent most of her life in France at the Court of Charles V and his successor, Charles VI. As one of the first and most prolific women of letters of her adoptive country, she is often viewed as one of the pivotal writers of late medieval Europe.

Who was the earliest feminist? ›

In late 14th- and early 15th-century France, the first feminist philosopher, Christine de Pisan, challenged prevailing attitudes toward women with a bold call for female education.

How did Christine de Pizan impact the Renaissance? ›

Christine de Pizan was a French Renaissance writer who wrote some of the very first feminist pieces of literature. During the Renaissance, Christine de Pizan broke with the traditional roles assigned to women in several ways during a time when women had no legal rights and were considered a man's property.

What is the main idea of Book of the City of Ladies by Christine de Pizan? ›

It should come as no surprise that one of the central themes of The Book of the City of Ladies is women and femininity. From the first page, Christine de Pizan writes with the sole intent of proving that women are capable of being just as moral and intelligent as men.

Who is the most highly regarded English poet of the Middle Ages? ›

Chaucer, Geoffrey (c. 1340-1400) [literary writing] The major poet of England in the late Middle Ages and the most significant writer before Shakespeare. Born and educated in London, Chaucer served in the court and the army and went abroad on diplomatic missions.

What did Christine de Pizan argue in her writing? ›

Christine specifically objected to the use of vulgar terms in Jean de Meun's allegorical poem. She argued that these terms denigrated the proper and natural function of sexuality, and that such language was inappropriate for female characters such as Madam Reason.

What does being a humanist mean? ›

Humanists stand for the building of a more humane, just, compassionate, and democratic society using a pragmatic ethics based on human reason, experience, and reliable knowledge-an ethics that judges the consequences of human actions by the well-being of all life on Earth.

Why did De Pizan write the book? ›

Christine had taken issue with what she saw as the misogynistic treatment of women in Jeun de Meun's continuation of the famous French poem La Roman de la Rose (The Romance of the Rose). So she decided, in around 1405, to defend her sex by writing a text which would portray women more positively.

Who was Christine de Pizan And what did she write? ›

Christine de Pisan, de Pisan also spelled de Pizan, (born 1364, Venice [Italy]—died c. 1430), prolific and versatile French poet and author whose diverse writings include numerous poems of courtly love, a biography of Charles V of France, and several works championing women.

What is true about Christine de Pisan? ›

Which is true regarding Christine de Pisan? She was the first professional woman writer. Which of the following CANNOT be said of "The Dance of Death"? It was represented only in the visual arts.

Who was Christine de Pizan quizlet? ›

Born about 1350/55 in Sens , died in 1418 in Paris , a statesman and humanist Frenchman, secretary of the king and diplomat under the reign of Charles VI. He and Jean de Montreuil and Nicolas de Clamanges formed the first small group of French " humanists. Opposed Christine in the ROTR Debate.

How long did Christine de Pizan live? ›

Christine de Pizan
BornSeptember 1364 Republic of Venice
Diedc. 1430 (aged 65–66)
OccupationWriter
SpouseEtienne du Castel
3 more rows

Who is father of feminism? ›

Terminology. Mary Wollstonecraft is seen by many as a founder of feminism due to her 1792 book titled A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in which she argues for women's education. Charles Fourier, a utopian socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word "féminisme" in 1837.

Who is the most famous feminist? ›

Aptly referred to as the "Mother of Feminism," Gloria Steinem led the women's liberation movements throughout the '60s and '70s—and continues to do so today.

What are the 4 types of feminism? ›

Introduction – Feminism: The Basics

There are four types of Feminism – Radical, Marxist, Liberal, and Difference.

Why was realism important in the Renaissance? ›

Another important concept in the Renaissance time period was the return to Classical Antiquity, being the Greek and Roman ideals. The Greeks sought to emulate beauty, harmony, and symmetry or perfect proportions in their art. This was also called Realism, which depicted the human form with anatomical correctness.

What were the effects of the Italian Renaissance? ›

During the Renaissance, changes also occurred in the political and economic structure of Italy that foreshadowed larger transformations for all of Europe. The Renaissance saw the rise of strong central governments and an increasingly urban economy, based on commerce rather than agriculture.

What is the time period known as the Renaissance? ›

The Renaissance was a fervent period of European cultural, artistic, political and economic “rebirth” following the Middle Ages. Generally described as taking place from the 14th century to the 17th century, the Renaissance promoted the rediscovery of classical philosophy, literature and art.

Is the Book of the City of Ladies an allegory? ›

[3.5] While heavily allegorical, The Book of the City of Ladies is also a deeply affective and personal text for Christine, beginning as it does with a vivid description of her emotional state and as it engages in a reclamation both of the specific historical women mentioned by the text and of women as a group, capable ...

Who is the main character in the book of the City of Ladies? ›

Christine de Pizan

The protagonist. Christine is a successful writer and scholar who is visited by three women representing Reason, Rectitude, and Justice. They help her to counter the sexist claims popularly made by male writers of the day.

Who is No 1 English poet? ›

Though he is most renowned for his plays, William Shakespeare also remains the most popular poet in the English language.

Who is World No 1 poet? ›

1. William Shakespeare (1564–1616, England) William Shakespeare is arguably the world's most famous poet and playwright.

Who is called the father of English poetry? ›

Ever since the end of the 14th century, Chaucer has been known as the "father of English poetry," a model of writing to be imitated by English poets. “He was one of the first poets of his day to write exclusively in English (his contemporary John Gower, for example, wrote in Latin, French, and English).

What does De Pizan argue for in this passage? ›

What does de Pizan argue for? Christine de Pizan argues for the fact that some men don't want women to be educated, and that the opinions of men should be based off of reason.

Who was the Book of the City of Ladies written for? ›

Did Christine de Pizan write about Joan of Arc? ›

The Song of Joan of Arc is the only popular piece written about Joan in her lifetime. The author, Christine de Pizan, was a professional writer at the Court of Charles VI of France (1380-1422), an unusual occupation for a woman at that time.

Do humanists believe in God? ›

Humanists do not believe that there is a God who commands us to have certain beliefs or to live our lives in a certain way, and rewards or punishes us for what we have done or not done in this life.

What are the 3 basic beliefs of humanism? ›

Defining humanism

trusts to the scientific method when it comes to understanding how the universe works and rejects the idea of the supernatural (and is therefore an atheist or agnostic) makes their ethical decisions based on reason, empathy, and a concern for human beings and other sentient animals.

What is it called when you believe in God but not religious? ›

While the Nones include agnostics and atheists, most people in this category retain a belief in God or some higher power. Many describe themselves as “spiritual but not religious,” or “SBNR,” as researchers refer to them.

When did feminism emerge? ›

The first wave of feminism took place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, emerging out of an environment of urban industrialism and liberal, socialist politics. The goal of this wave was to open up opportunities for women, with a focus on suffrage.

Who are the three ladies that rule over De Pizan's city? ›

At this moment of sadness, she is visited by three ladies, Rectitude, Justice, and Reason, who represent different virtues. They tell Christine to build a city of ladies, and to fill it with women worthy of recognition for their intellect, compassion, and strength.

Who published the book of the City of Ladies? ›

1405. Trans. Rosalind Brown-Grant. London: Penguin, 1999.

Which of the following is not a major feature in African music? ›

19 Cards in this Set
One of the first paintings to make use of the new system of linear perspective wasThe Tribute Money.
Which of the following is NOT a major feature in African music?-polyrhythmic structure -antiphonal chants -percussive vigor → lyric harmony
17 more rows

Is Christine de Pizan a philosopher? ›

To discover Christine de Pizan as a writer, a philosopher and a precursor of feminism in this era, implies a radical change in the conception of the Middle Ages and of the role that women played at that time.

Why was the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 important to the Italian Renaissance quizlet? ›

Trade between the Ottoman Empire and Europe, and Byzantine scholars who left Constantinople for Italy after the Ottoman Empire conquered it in 1453, led to the rediscovery of Greek and Roman texts that had been kept in the Middle East during the chaotic European Middle Ages.

Why was Italy the natural origin point for the Renaissance? ›

The Renaissance Began in Italy, Because Italy Was the Birthplace of Antiquity. The Renaissance began in Italy, the birthplace of the Roman Empire. Following the fall of the empire in the 4th century, and the subsequent dark ages, the incredible art and ideas of Roman times were temporarily lost.

Which Renaissance author's work gave us the concept that the need for a strong state justifies strong rule? ›

The central theme in Machiavelli's the Prince is? The need for a strong state justifies strong rule.

How did Christine de Pizan impact the Renaissance? ›

Christine de Pizan was a French Renaissance writer who wrote some of the very first feminist pieces of literature. During the Renaissance, Christine de Pizan broke with the traditional roles assigned to women in several ways during a time when women had no legal rights and were considered a man's property.

What is the main idea of Book of the City of Ladies by Christine de Pizan? ›

It should come as no surprise that one of the central themes of The Book of the City of Ladies is women and femininity. From the first page, Christine de Pizan writes with the sole intent of proving that women are capable of being just as moral and intelligent as men.

What did Christine de Pizan argue in her writing? ›

Christine specifically objected to the use of vulgar terms in Jean de Meun's allegorical poem. She argued that these terms denigrated the proper and natural function of sexuality, and that such language was inappropriate for female characters such as Madam Reason.

Who is the most highly regarded English poet of the Middle Ages? ›

Chaucer, Geoffrey (c. 1340-1400) [literary writing] The major poet of England in the late Middle Ages and the most significant writer before Shakespeare. Born and educated in London, Chaucer served in the court and the army and went abroad on diplomatic missions.

Why is Christine de Pizan remembered? ›

Christine de Pizan (also given as Christine de Pisan, l. 1364 - c. 1430) was the first female professional writer of the Middle Ages and the first woman of letters in France. Her best-known works advocated for greater equality and respect for women, anticipating the feminist movement of the 19th century by 600 years.

Where is Christine de Pizan from? ›

Born in Venice in 1364, Christine de Pizan spent most of her life in France at the Court of Charles V and his successor, Charles VI. As one of the first and most prolific women of letters of her adoptive country, she is often viewed as one of the pivotal writers of late medieval Europe.

Who was Christine de Pizan And what did she write? ›

Christine de Pisan, de Pisan also spelled de Pizan, (born 1364, Venice [Italy]—died c. 1430), prolific and versatile French poet and author whose diverse writings include numerous poems of courtly love, a biography of Charles V of France, and several works championing women.

Who was Christine de Pizan quizlet? ›

Born about 1350/55 in Sens , died in 1418 in Paris , a statesman and humanist Frenchman, secretary of the king and diplomat under the reign of Charles VI. He and Jean de Montreuil and Nicolas de Clamanges formed the first small group of French " humanists. Opposed Christine in the ROTR Debate.

What did Christine de Pizan argue? ›

In her writings, Christine de Pizan took aim at the patriarchy, arguing in favor of women's rights to an education and their right to be considered as men's equals.

What is the main idea of Book of the City of Ladies by Christine de Pizan? ›

It should come as no surprise that one of the central themes of The Book of the City of Ladies is women and femininity. From the first page, Christine de Pizan writes with the sole intent of proving that women are capable of being just as moral and intelligent as men.

Why did De Pizan write the book? ›

Christine had taken issue with what she saw as the misogynistic treatment of women in Jeun de Meun's continuation of the famous French poem La Roman de la Rose (The Romance of the Rose). So she decided, in around 1405, to defend her sex by writing a text which would portray women more positively.

Who is the most highly regarded English poet of the Middle Ages? ›

Chaucer, Geoffrey (c. 1340-1400) [literary writing] The major poet of England in the late Middle Ages and the most significant writer before Shakespeare. Born and educated in London, Chaucer served in the court and the army and went abroad on diplomatic missions.

When did Christine de Pizan wrote the Book of the City of Ladies? ›

The Book of the City of Ladies, prose work by Christine de Pisan, published in 1405 as Le Livre de la cité des dames. Written in praise of women and as a defense of their capabilities and virtues, the work is a significant feminist argument against the misogynist male writing of the day.

How many poems did Christine de Pizan write? ›

Christine published 41 known pieces of poetry and prose in her lifetime and she gained fame across Europe as the first professional woman writer.

What did Christine de Pizan study? ›

Studying a range of topics, she became knowledgeable about such subjects as Greek and Latin. De Pisan also had access to an extensive library, allowing her to delve into works of great literature. Leading science and philosophical works were also available to her.

Who supported Christine de Pizan? ›

Her patrons included Louis I, Duke d'Orléans; the Duke de Berry; Philip II the Bold of Burgundy; Queen Isabella of Bavaria and, in England, the 4th Earl of Salisbury. In 1404 she was commissioned by the Duke of Burgundy to write a biography of his deceased brother, King Charles V.

When did feminism emerge? ›

The first wave of feminism took place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, emerging out of an environment of urban industrialism and liberal, socialist politics. The goal of this wave was to open up opportunities for women, with a focus on suffrage.

Who is Lady rectitude? ›

Like Christine, Rectitude resides in two realms, living more in heaven than on Earth. But she arrives as a messenger of God's goodness and a symbol of the radiance and splendor of the heavenly realm in order to inspire and exhort all of humanity to right and just conduct.

Who was the Book of the City of Ladies written for? ›

Is the Book of the City of Ladies an allegory? ›

[3.5] While heavily allegorical, The Book of the City of Ladies is also a deeply affective and personal text for Christine, beginning as it does with a vivid description of her emotional state and as it engages in a reclamation both of the specific historical women mentioned by the text and of women as a group, capable ...

Who is the main character in the book of the City of Ladies? ›

Christine de Pizan

The protagonist. Christine is a successful writer and scholar who is visited by three women representing Reason, Rectitude, and Justice. They help her to counter the sexist claims popularly made by male writers of the day.

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